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Article: How to Keep Running Better After 40 Years Old

Post-40 Runners  

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Came across this article which provided some good tips to keep running after 40.

 How to Keep Running Better After 40 Years Old

The article got me thinking about how many runners here belong to this age group. 

I also like that the article attempt to categorise runners above 40 broadly as follows:

  • Young masters (ages 35 to 44) 
  • Middle masters (ages 45 to 55) 
  • Ageing masters (ages 56 to 64) 
  • Senior masters (ages 65 to 74) 

So I decided to create a poll to find out the no of post-40 runners in sgrunners. 

Lai Lai ..dun shy! Come and take the poll. 

Edited by lonewolf

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yo, uncle likes this one, since uncle should qualify easily...and is still engaging in Masters Events both in Marathon/UltraMarathon and Triathlon..as in the Ageing Masters category..

uncle had been actively promoting running here (sharing lame running stories in the past), reviews on especially both Marathon/UltraMarathon events (lamely also)..and yes, Triathlon events...both as an Athlete, an Official, and Coaching Tips ...served in National Sports Federations in Singapore Athletics (recently scandal big big which another thread is talking about, and uncle knows all, but choose not to tell too much)...and Triathlon Association of Singapore...

As an Ageing Masters...I share the secret...find out these tests honestly...in sports whether running or otherwise...your age is just a number, but what is important is your...

Biological Age


Biological Age Test


and if you are actively engaged in healthy lifestyle (running is just one of the activities)...all here may be reaching 40 soon or later...it is that Biological Age that determines why you can still run/cycle/swim...engaging in sports....

uncle, wishing all here forever young ones...very merry 2017 and looking forward to another eventful year of 2018....aging-in-progress...gracefully..biologically...:D 

NB :huh:: uncle has been tested as biologically forever in 40... 

Edited by kohpapa
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Extracted, Credited with thanks from uncle for the purpose of only sharing with the Run Community, and Reproduction from CNA (Channelnewasia) LifeStyle (14 Dec 2018) with the interesting Research found that "aerobic activities like jogging and interval training can make cells biologically younger but not weight training" for the purpose of promoting run for healthly lifestyle and fitness for all...

Extracted - https://cnalifestyle.channelnewsasia.com/wellness/is-aerobic-exercise-the-key-to-successful-ageing-11026708

Credit of Source reproduced from Gretchen Reynolds © The New York Times 2018



Aerobic activities like jogging and interval training can make our cells biologically younger, according to a noteworthy new experiment. Weight training may not have the same effect, the study found, raising interesting questions about how various types of exercise affect us at a microscopic level, and whether the differences should perhaps influence how we choose to move.

There is mounting and rousing evidence that being physically active affects how we age, with older people who exercise typically being healthier, fitter, better muscled, and less likely to develop a variety of diseases and disabilities than their sedentary peers. 


But precisely how, at an interior, molecular level, exercise might be keeping us youthful has not been altogether clear. Past studies have shown that exercise alters the workings of many genes, as well as the immune system, muscle-repair mechanisms and many other systems within the body.

Some researchers have speculated that the most pervasive anti-ageing effects of exercise may occur at the tips of our chromosomes, which are capped with tiny bits of matter known as telomeres. 

Telomeres seem to protect our DNA from damage during cell division but, unfortunately, shorten and fray as a cell ages. At some point, they no longer safeguard our DNA, and the cell becomes frail and inactive or dies. Many scientists believe that telomere length is a useful measure of a cell’s functional age.


But researchers also have found that telomeres are mutable. They can be lengthened or shortened by lifestyle, including exercise. A 2009 study, for instance, found that middle-aged competitive runners tended to have much longer telomeres than inactive people of the same age. Their telomeres were, in fact, almost as lengthy of those of healthy, young people. 

But that study was associational; it showed only that older people who ran also were people with extended telomeres, not that the exercise necessarily caused that desirable condition.


So, for the new study, which was published in November in the European Heart Journal, many of the same scientists involved in the 2009 study decided to directly test whether exercise would change telomeres. They also hoped to learn whether the type and intensity of the exercise mattered.

The researchers began by recruiting 124 middle-aged men and women who were healthy but did not exercise. They determined everyone’s aerobic fitness and drew blood to measure telomere length in their white blood cells (which usually are used in studies of telomeres, because they are so readily accessible). They also checked blood markers of the amount and activity of each person’s telomerase, an enzyme that is known to influence telomere length. 

Then, some of the volunteers randomly were assigned to continue with their normal lives as a control, or to start exercising.

Others started a supervised programme of brisk walking or jogging for 45 minutes three times a week, or a thrice-weekly, high-intensity interval programme consisting of four minutes of strenuous exercise followed by four minutes of rest, with the sequence repeated four times.

The final group took up weight training, completing a circuit of resistance exercises three times a week.


Researchers monitored people’s heart rates during their workouts, and the exercisers continued their programmes for six months. Afterward, everyone returned to the lab, where the scientists again tested fitness and drew blood.

At this point, the volunteers who had exercised in any way were more aerobically fit.

There were sizable differences, however, between the groups at a molecular level. Those men and women who had jogged or completed intervals had much longer telomeres in their white blood cells now than at the start, and more telomerase activity. 

The weight trainers did not. Their telomeres resembled those of people in the control group, having remained about the same or, in some instances, shortened during the six months.

These results would seem to indicate that exercise needs to be aerobically taxing to extend telomeres and slow cellular-level ageing, says Dr Christian Werner, a cardiologist and researcher at the University of Saarland in Germany, who led the new study.

“In the parameters we looked at, endurance exercise was clearly ahead of resistance training,” he said.


The reasons might lie with differences in intensity, he added. "Even though resistance exercise was strenuous, the mean pulse rate was much lower than with running,” resulting in slighter blood flow and probably less physiological response from the blood vessels themselves. 

Those who did resistance training would have produced less of a substance, nitric oxide, that is thought to affect the activity of telomerase and contribute to lengthening telomeres.

But the findings do not indicate that weight training does not combat ageing, he said. Like the other workouts, it improved people’s fitness, he said, which is one of the most important indicators of longevity.

Overall, he said, the results underscore that differing types of exercise almost certainly lead to potentially synergistic impacts on our cells and bodily systems. In future studies, he and his colleagues would like to study the cellular effects of various combinations of endurance and strength training.

But for now, the message of the new study, he said, is that exercise of any kind may change the nature of ageing, even for people who already are middle-aged. “It is not too late,” he said, “to keep your cells young.”

uncle agreed for these are the reasons...Keep Running Better After 40 Years Old...for you keep your biological cells running younger like uncle  ....:)

Edited by kohpapa

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And the magic formula for a healthy happy ageing population is keeping fit: http://www.silverfit.org.uk/healthier-lifestyles/

(research by a friend who is in her 70s and has completed 4 ironman events). The older you are the better your endurance.

Though I do wonder about how ultras can affect memory as often these can mean sleepless continual motion. Having experienced memory loss in long events. Worst one was 135 miles and up for nearly 70 hours. Brain fried for nearly 3 months!

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for all whose age-group 40 and above...Protein and You as Runners:


Runners also know that we need to pay attention to the food we eat to recover fast and prevent injuries (or heal a current injury), and most of us know that protein is the best way to assist with the recovery process.


How Much Protein Do I Need For My Training?

Training for a 10k – 1/2 marathon

Start at 1.2 g of protein per kg of body weight.

If you feel great and you are recovering quickly, this is the perfect amount for you.

If you are not recovering well or find you keep getting injured, you may need additional protein while you are training.

Increase your protein uptake to 1.5g per kg of bodyweight.

You can also change your protein intake based on the intensity of your training day.

On hard workout days, increase your protein intake to 1.5g

On easy recovery days or rest days, keep your protein intake to 1.2g.

What’s the bottom line?

Keep experimenting with slight changes in your protein intake until you notice a positive difference in your recovery rate.

Training for a marathon

While you are committed to following your marathon training schedule, give this a try:

Start at 1.4 g of protein per kg body weight and apply the same process as the 10k-1/2 marathon group.

Give yourself about a week at each protein level to determine if it is the right amount for you.

What’s the bottom line?

Don’t feel like you have to watch every gram you consume.

As long as you stay within a range of about +/- 10g of protein from the suggested amount for your body weight, your recovery will be fine.

Is Chocolate Milk a Good Recovery Drink for Runners?

Chocolate milk has been toted as a great recovery drink for runners, but is it really all it is cracked up to be?

When you break down an 8 ounce glass of reduced fat chocolate milk nutritionally you get :

190 calories
5 g of fat
2 g fiber
24 g of sugar
7 grams of protein

This isn’t terrible, but chocolate milk does lack a few key amino acids essential for optimal recovery.

Chocolate milk does not provide the body with the amino acid L-Glutamine, which can boosts the immune system and can help manage aches, pains, and soreness by reducing inflammation.

How does chocolate milk compare to a protein shake?

Let’s take a recovery shake made with 1 cup almond milk, 1 scoop protein powder, and 1/2 cup blueberries

180 calories
3.5 g of fat
4 g of fiber
8 g sugar
26 g protein

In addition to having more than three times the amount of protein, less fat and 3 times less sugar, this specific protein shake offers 5,000 micrograms of L-glutamine.

Calorie for calorie, the protein shake with blueberries is a healthier recovery drink than chocolate milk.


If it is the chocolate you crave, there are plenty of options of high quality protein powders, supplements, and milk alternatives that come in a chocolate flavor.

enjooy ;)

Edited by kohpapa

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Normally on marathons and ultras I use fat and protein as my nutrition. Find it lasts longer than the carbohydrates.

What do you think about a ketogenic diet?

I find that people eating low fat stuff does not do much for their body shape or the amount of fat and wondered if it is actually due to the amount of sugar. Lactose is the same in normal milk and low fat milk. Sugar converts to fat


Edited by Lady Ice

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uncle once contributed this forum thread - Nutrition, Hydration and Metabolism for Runs...


unfortunately, this is no longer editable to continue...

and so, my dear @Lady Ice again find uncle's topic of relevance (and charisma) here, uncle would reply based on nutrition and metabolism needs important for Runs - Endurance (or Ultra) Runs...

The ketogenic diet first gained fame through its effectiveness for weight loss. The high-fat, low-carb diet promotes nutritional ketosis–a normal metabolic state marked by moderate levels of ketones in the blood. The idea with carb restriction in terms of weight loss is that it prompts the release of body fat to be burned or converted to ketones for energy (extra dietary fat also contributes to ketone production).

For decades, much of dieting focused on counting caloric intake. But not keto. 

In other words, nobody would ask you how many keto"es" are needed for run...



so, going back to calories which is based on g Carbo, g Protein, g Fat 

Are All Calories Created Equal?

weight gain = energy (calories) in - energy (calories) out

This traditional viewpoint argues that the food eaten is unimportant–a calorie is a calorie. To lose weight, create a calorie deficit by either eating less or burning more. To gain weight, increase calorie intake.

The opposing viewpoint maintains that calories still count, but the type of food consumed has a trickle-down effect on the amount of energy expended, and what foods the body craves. It takes way more energy to process and store protein than it does carbohydrate or fat–this is called the thermic effect of food.

Essentially, one burns more energy dieting protein because it requires more energy for the body to process.



"I find that people eating low fat stuff does not do much for their body shape or the amount of fat and wondered if it is actually due to the amount of sugar. Lactose is the same in normal milk and low fat milk. Sugar converts to fat"

wah so many questions in 2 sentences...likedat how uncle answer...abutthen..uncle compartmentise into:

think about Weight Loss, g carbo (sugar), g protein (meat, milk), g fat...go back to calories (what you understand on energy expenditure during run)...Weight Loss is associated to keto diet....then why some and not all runners need to have keto diet? is it the need to loss weight or for diabetes type 2 runners...and finally metabolism...any bodily movement (run, bike or swim), skeletal muscles requires energy expenditure  - aerobic (endurance), anaerobic (weights training or HIIT of quick burst activities)...what does body need most...carbo (sugar), energy gel, or protein shake better...

"Normally on marathons and ultras I use fat and protein as my nutrition. Find it lasts longer than the carbohydrates."



check out what you really know and what you have being told by many...


uncle, your silly and funny Sports Nutritionist...1 post worth...

enjooy ;)

Edited by kohpapa

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Thank you @kohpapa skimmed the linked post. Lots of information! And so now to discuss ;)

Diabetes - to reverse type II is about losing weight: https://www.bbc.com/news/health-46363869

A ketogenic diet is about eating medium chained fats which are supposed to be processed faster than the long chained variety. I don't know much but folk that I know who have taken on a ketogenic diet have certainly lost weight. Hence if diabetes type II is about losing weight, then perhaps this will advance the idea that a ketogenic diet can help reverse diabetes type II with the correct types of fats. Here is a US science paper on testing a ketogenic diet on diabetes and found it positively beneficial:


Fat vs Carbohydrate in Endurance

From my own personal experience, I would certainly say that it is better to avoid the chemical gels. And agree with your experience that they cause spikes. I have seen too many people hit the wall using gels every 20-30 minutes in ultra marathons. It is a ridiculous amount of sugar that the liver is unable to process and they are probably not burning well.

The only time I truely have a sugar craving is when am working at high speed eg a hockey game. For runners who keep within their comfort zone I would argue that medium chained fats would be better for their endurance than carbs as well as be better for the body and mind.

Most runners run way too slow to get the benefit and without testing would be they would be better off with a fat / protein bit of nutrition. 



I had one during the marathon as someone gave it to me and thought to try it 4 miles from the end. I had a squish of it and my mouth wanted to throw it back out. I had to waste the rest of it. Dunno how folk are eating that vile stuff!!!

My theory is that for most of us sugar has a negative effect and chemical gels would be best removed for a healthy body.


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alert from @lady Ice is always an immediate response...

thank you for your kind response, for many who participated in HM, M and even Ultras...are always not aware that...proper hydration, nutrition and especially metabolism (very much neglected component) must be planned for every physical activity...intense or otherwise...slow and relaxing with the Keto diet..

for Diabetes Type 2 running community - becoming common in our urbanised lifestyle environment...where food is always processed by not organic way (like fish from seas are not from cold water, but instead harvest from fish farms; or kampong chickens roaming freely grazing on natural grown grains, are now chickens reared in farms where enhanced hormones are injected to promote growth for commercially reason)...

our diet is no long "caveman" but processed...our energy gels are "glucose" that gave us the spur of endurance which commercially produced with chemicals from A-Z but with naturally produced favour (fruity)...caffeine is actually chemically tainted with natural favouring (coffee or green tea)...sugar spike...hormonal flight-from-fear disruption is equal to  "the drive to win" enhancement effects is what uncle has experienced the after-effect, and agreed by @Lady Ice from her observations of runners who are ignorant of the side-effects of over-consumption of non-organic nutrients for runs...

Metabolism in runs is how your body actually naturally generates energy from the food consume..and yes, knowing about how you should plan with how much calories you must consume for HM, M and even Ultras...only the body is the natural process of all energy expenditure..skeletal muscles (fat storage), protein (build muscle), sodium (sweat and if not enough muscle cramp), minerals for balance of potassium and calcium (for ladies in advancing age - deficit is more here...then must learn to have more and more...)..for those still not sure, just read uncle's forum thread...just 15-20 minutes is good enough..

ok, too bad, the forum thread that uncle started is not "editable", and so we have dump the topic and response into this forum thread, again apologise...if this conversation with @Lady Ice is a side track to what this topic is intended..

so, if there is no further topic relating to Hydration, Nutrition and Metabolism for Runs for the 40s and above, then we shall close this.... 


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@kohpapa Thanks for sharing these useful articles on aerobic training and the science behind doing it. Although I have yet to reach this"masters age", this is still important for me to get the foundation correct here.

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dear friend bro and coach tbz...long time no see...and hope u r moving on something - internationally (wah you overseas ones) and your aspirations...

as you are too like uncle sports coach, knowledge of sports science is important, for mutual understanding, whether sports is hockey, badminton, run, bike and swim..


the fundamentals/foundation is always there, movements of our skeleton/muscles in sports is why we are here, discussing such as running with hockey stick, hand hitting badminton racket of shutter-cock while legs bending and stepping of legs, running with legs and swinging of hands, pedaling with legs on bikes, swimming with buoyancy while body and hands stroking in streamline movement through water...

some sports is aerobic, and others are anaerobic...but each has its emphasis on the diet appropriate for the sports when participating for fun or competition...

@Lady Ice, coach tbz and uncle here are discussing on sports of aerobic run, HM-FM-Ultras...



and relevant here is consideration on when we age gracefully (after 40s), we must know about:



uncle say enough...always KISS (Keep It Short and Silly) ;)

Edited by kohpapa

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@kohpapa Indeed! The importance of movement technique and quality aerobic exercise cannot be ignored!

I took a hard relook at my current running base and started on the Maffetone Method two years ago (Details at https://philmaffetone.com/method/).  This infographic sums up nicely what we should focus on besides just the aerobic system (element 5) to achieve injury-free and efficient exercise:


Source: https://philmaffetone.com/method/

Here is one article by Dr Phil on the need to "slow down" to improve running efficiency (i.e. aerobic base) with the use of heart rate monitors and personalised heart rate zones. The link is at https://philmaffetone.com/want-speed-slow-down/

Edited by trailblazer

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coach tbz, thank you, Maffetone Method which uncle adopted in Triathlon Training, uncle tries to KISSilly...

"slow down" to improve running efficiency (i.e. aerobic base) with the use of heart rate monitors and personalised heart rate zones...


focus on just the Aerobic System (element 5) to achieve injury-free and efficient exercise....




Maffetone’s 180 Formula, 180 minus your age with a few minor mods, is an evidence-based way to find your heart’s max aerobic rate. Running slow like this will maximize your fat burning, and prevent you from getting into oxygen debt (lactic acidosis), with all the microinjuries, muscle soreness, and reduced desire to run the next day that comes with it. It may seem too slow, but it isn’t. It’s teaching your heart and body how to get more fit and efficient while it burns fat.

MAF exercise during your intermittent fasting (IF, which we’ll discuss soon) is an ideal weight loss strategy. If you are more than 30 pounds overweight, you should probably just stick to MAF speed exercise, either powerwalking or on low impact exercise machines, and leave higher speed running out of the picture until your weight comes down. If you have obesity, which the NIH defines as a BMI of 30 and above, the combination of IF and MAF Training (“IFMAFT”) will rapidly bring your weight down and your fitness up, over just a few months, while keeping you injury free the whole time. You’ll feel so good during it that you’ll keep doing IF and MAF for life as well. Someone is going to make billions by turning IFMAFT into a weight loss thing, you watch.

If you use MAF speed for your long runs, you’ll get greater heart fitness, endurance, and speed in your non-MAF runs, and in your daily life as well. You may find yourself running more long runs as well, just because MAF runs go at such an easy pace.


Once a maximum aerobic heart rate is found, a training range from this heart rate to 10 beats below could be used.

For example, if an athlete’s maximum aerobic heart rate is determined to be 155, that person’s aerobic training zone would be 145 to 155 bpm. However, the more training closer to the maximum 155, the quicker an optimal aerobic base will be developed.

Key Challenges in Maffetone Method Training :


(1) - I move like a snail

There are several reasons you can't run fast enough:

You're overweight: Weight can have a dramatic impact on speed. The rule of thumb is you loose 2 seconds/mile for every pound you are overweight.

Taking the 2 week challenge and drastically reducing your intake of harmful carbs and oils is a start. The majority of your weight loss is from your diet, not exercise, so focus on adopting a high fat low carb diet to drop those extra pounds.

Poor Gait: Dr Phil talks a lot about proper gait. Having a poor gait can add 5 to 10 beats to your heart rate, making it tough to maintainnrunning form at your MAF rate.

First, take a look at your running posture, try to run more upright if you bend at the waist. Try short runs (50-100 yards) running barefoot on grass to find your true form.

To lighten your foot strike, while running, pretend you are running over a bead of burning coals. While you are running slow, spend that time working on improving your cadence. Strive to get close to 180 steps per minute.

Work on improving your turnover and neuromuscular system by doing Aerobic intervals. Once or twice a week, find a moderate hill and run down it at your max aerobic heart rate keeping your cadence high.

Muscle imbalances: In the old days we talked about the importance of stretching, mostly static stretching. Nowadays, mobility is the focus. If you don't have good range of motion in your hip flexors or you have tight calves, your stride will compromised and your speed will suffer.

Spend just 10 minutes every night on muscle maintenance with a foam roller to start working out the kinks and loosing up your fascia.

A hidden cause of muscle imbalance is sitting all day. Studies have shown that the positive effects of exercising 30 minutes a day can be erased by sitting at a desk all day.

So move! At work, get up every 20 minutes and move around. If you can get a standup desk, that can help add movement variety during your day. The same goes for lounging on the couch all day after a hard workout. You're no better off than your couch potato neighbor unless you keep moving during the day.

Lack of Strength: As we age, we loose muscle mass. Other than diet, the best anti-aging solution is strength training. For us runners, there are just a couple of simple body weight exercises you can get started with. A few push ups and a couple of minutes in the plank position will build your core. Add some squats and lunges to build up your posterior chain and you'll see improvement in your speed, especially on hills.

It's ok to have to walk up hills to keep your heart rate down when you are first starting MAF. I like to start newbie trail runners with a few weekend mountain hikes before running hills. When approaching a hill, shorten your stride and keep your cadence high to lower your heart rate, just like shifting gears on a bike.

If you are running too slow on the flats, while addressing the previous issues, raise your heart rate limit up 5 to 10 bpm to be able to run with good form. Try this for 2 weeks, then re-evaluate, and adjust downwards as you improve. It's kind of reverse MAF!

*Another alternative is switch to another sport such as cycling or swimming during your initial base building. Doing an alternate exercise for 2 to 4 weeks may get your aerobic metabolism up high enough to allow your to run at your MAF heart rate.

(2) "Getting past the mindset that slower is better regardless how long it takes is very challenging!"

By adopting a low carb diet and primarily training at a low heart rate, you can switch your metabolism from sugar craving to fat burning and dramatically reduce metabolic stress and inflammation.

For some, this can happen very quickly, from 2 to 8 weeks, for others, it may take longer. To persevere, it takes mental toughness:

What this means to you, is just as Dr. Phil is against structured training plans, sometimes you need to reevaluate your methods and possibly adjust your MAF heart rate up some to get over a hump, rather than doggingly toughing it out. I'm all in favor of some variation as long as you are sticking to your ultimate goal. This is a life changing transformation, experiment with it, no two runners are alike.

(3) Keeping my heart rate low because of my age

"I started my MAF journey at the age of 62. Staying under 118 bpm was a non-starter for me. I added 10 bpm so I could continue to run with good form. Now, a year and a half later, I do most of my runs at 116 - 122 bpm with good form."

Maintaining good form while running is important. if you adjust your MAF heart rate upwards, it should only take 5 or 10 additional beats to get you moving more efficiently. Concentrate on taking shorter steps, focusing on improving your poor gait as explained above. As you improve your form, lower your training heart rate back to your calculated MAF heart rate.

(4) "Not knowing if I will actually be able to run XX min. per mile come race day!" 

Switching from a life of preparing for races with tempo runs and intervals to just steady running is tough to adjust to. The bottom line, in a normal progression of MAF training, we don't introduce speed work until your progress has plateaued. However, as I mentioned before, once or twice a week you can do aerobic intervals during your base building phase to rebuild those neuromuscular connections and build more speed.

But what about an upcoming race? In a normal training cycle, you should have a base building phase followed by mini cycles of intensity, tapering, competition, rest, aerobic rebuilding. I recommend taking the long view, that is, stick with the mini cycles during your competition season, then continue on with your aerobic base period. This can delay your development some, but after a couple of years, you'll be a beast for life!

extracted on Aerobic Training for Running for 40s and above...Common Challenges with Mafffetone Method Training...;)

Edited by kohpapa

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Certainly agree that the MAF method is certainly great for building a strong base.

Also been able to help folk with Pose Running to improve their performance. Was happy to teach a group and see their 5K times go down + 2 of them were able to run despite having achilles issues.

Nutrition is still good to discuss for all ages and have found it affects performance. I do wonder as you age, more MCT fat is better than carbs.

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greetings @Lady Ice, thought u overseas...it's christmas...

anything Pose, can ask Guru, coach tbz, otherwise...what is POSE?



Barefoot/Pose running style. Running like this takes far less energy than any other style. Each little energy savings adds up to big gains over a long run. Staying in the right poses all the way through really minimizes injury and effort, and as a hidden benefit, it improves your concentration and posture after the run.

"Nutrition is still good to discuss for all ages and have found it affects performance. I do wonder as you age, more MCT fat is better than carbs."

wah, @Lady Ice, your one question on MCT fat...


MCTs refers to medium-chain triglycerides that sit in the middle of the other two types. They are of medium length and made up of 6 to 12 carbon atoms.

MCTs are found in coconut oil and are processed by the body in a different way to long-chain fatty acids. Unlike other fats, they go straight from the gut to the liver. From here, they are used as a source of energy or turned into ketones.

Ketones are substances produced when the liver breaks down a lot of fat, and they can be used by the brain for energy instead of glucose or sugar.

As the calories in MCTs are used straightaway, they are less likely to be stored as fat. This principle is the basis of the ketogenic diet, which many people believe is an effective way to lose weight.

aiyo, @Lady Ice, you again make uncle do ketogenic diet, you really never want to let go uncle on this topic...tsk tsk

ok lah, let uncle make this KISSilly...

the story started with there is movement of diet, exercise and health on  Primal Lifestyle and Nutritional Ketosis...

The Primal Blueprint...Mark Sisson



Primal Endurance...Mark Sisson and Brad Kearn


Brad Kearns Primal Endurance podcast dives deeply into the challenges and benefits of nutritional ketosis. He also makes clear that you want to eat between one and two grams of protein per kg of body weight a day, ideally staying at the lower end of this range. That is a lot less protein than the typical Paleo or Primal eater likes to eat. It’s one level of challenge to shift away from most meat eating, to just a little fatty fish every few days. It’s another to get to 150 grams a day of carbs, and yet another to get just 50 grams a day of carbs for three weeks or more at a stretch. I’m still struggling with that challenge, and presently see-saw between Sisson’s 150 gram and Kearn’s 50 gram ideals. But all of these regimes, when combined with IF, will teach your body to eat its own fat in an endurance activity, and give you amazing energy for incredible lengths of time.

The Art and Science of Low-Carbohydrate Performance....Phinney and Volek


Again, after you’ve been ketoadapted for a few months, you will find you can run for hours, at aerobic max, on just water alone, and feel amazing. Doing that is also really good for your body and brain as well, according to Maffetone, Sisson, Kearns, Volek, Phinney, and others in this space. It’s a sad that there’s very little good fat, or even protein, at the typical aid station on an endurance run. The general running community has been very slow to get this message so far, so you’ll just have to pack in your own good fats (see above) and good protein (like eggs, and tuna, smoked salmon) for your races and training runs, and you’ll have yet another amazing set of rewards to give yourself, any time you choose.

"Certainly agree that the MAF method is certainly great for building a strong base."

so, @Lady Ice, are you happy, let uncle read all the books, summarise for all and do the answer for you, and now uncle kena keto-crazy-maniac...brain kena fried with ketones...

wah, likedat uncle deserves to have PhD (Permanent head Damage) in Nutrition in Endurance Sports...;)

Edited by kohpapa

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@kohpapa Thanks for doing your best to summarise Maffetone method although there is no short cut to understand the method fully. It is still good to read the "yellow" book which the electronic book by NLB link is at https://nlb.overdrive.com/media/1548757  and available in hardcopy version for borrowing as well. The book has 34 chapters with three broad sections (Section ONE: building endurance foundation, Section TWO: Diet and Nutrition and Section THREE: Importance of Self-Care and Injury Prevention) 

However, I need to point out one inaccurate statement you made here:


focus on just the Aerobic System (element 5) to achieve injury-free and efficient exercise....


This is wrong as the biggest misconception when people equate Maffetone method to just low heart rate training. All eight elements under the three areas (nutrition, exercise and stress) need to be addressed together properly before one can seek for aerobic/health improvement after building up proper health/lifestyle habits. 

Dr Phil also recently talked about a review on the MAF 180 formula due to people becoming "overfat" and suffering from "chronic over training", so a reduction in the training is needed! Source is at https://philmaffetone.com/the-180-review/


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ok, coach tbz, thank you for pointing out, and indeed, what uncle had extracted is reference from Phil's Maffetone classic...1999


and Phil's 2010..yes, uncle borrowed from National Library Board (Singapore) for Maffetone's Endurance Training for Triathlon...for different multi-event has a different HR due to element of Bike (stationary support, cadence is on pedaling) and Swim (water has a cooler temperature as compared to ground, and buoyancy in water, cadence is on the strokes)...run (everyone knows...)


and now The 180 Review after more than 35 years of success...



Eating for 180 success

For many people, the missing key to the 180-Formula is the food factor. A great training plan is great only when it’s supported by the biochemical aspects associated with improving metabolism, hormones, brain function. These and other values are most influenced by eating healthy food, which also means avoiding junk food. Without excellent diet, one could never get the most out of the formula, or the body.

In order to adjust the fat-burning factor for those not eating well, we’d need a new category: Twenty beats would have to be taken away from the 180-age baseline in order to reduce the heart rate in hopes of burning a bit more fat for fuel, and it still may not be enough.

And for those who try the formula without success, it’s the diet that’s usually at fault, not the formula. Even for those who improve using the formula but don’t eat as well, much more improvement could be realized.

An addition to minus 5

During the development of the Formula, there were not a lot of overfat people, especially athletes. But this has changed as most of the world is now overfat. In category 2, there are various indications of reduced health and fitness that require one to reduce the 180-age result by 5. One important addition that I want to add to that list is overfat. It’s clear when body fat is excessive — simply use the waist-to-height ratio. Your waist should be less than half your height — if it’s not, subtract 5. Excess body fat poses many possible health and fitness problems, and is often the reason people don’t get faster at the same HR.

An addition to minus 10

The fourth category of the 180-Formula is one people want to avoid as it’s indicative of more significant reductions in health. Even when they know that is where they stand, and have to reduce their exercise HR by another 10 beats after subtracting age from 180, people feel it’s undue punishment. But it’s not. It’s about finding the most appropriate, best match, personalized HR that is low-risk while allowing a high-quality workout. This, despite the perceived effort.

I must add another common condition to this category — chronic overtraining. These individuals, often athletes who are chronically burned out, those who have had a nervous breakdown or are otherwise chronically stressed, are really seriously unhealthy too. Many athletes are not progressing, continue to have poor performances, various injuries, often because they are chronically overtrained and don’t realize or can’t accept it.

extracted as for main consideration on the changes on eating of diets and chronic overtraining, health and fitness for the purpose of discussion training issues and diet relating more from @Lady Ice's "Nutrition is still good to discuss for all ages and have found it affects performance"

wah, uncle now got another PhD in Nutrition, Exercise and Stress ...  very stressful indeed....

yes, uncle updated...been verified and rightfully corrected by coach tbz...and thank you coach tbz for the best interest of everyone, we now know that Dr. Phil Maffetone has really kept his MAF method contemporary..;)


uncle always look forward to having intellectual exchanges, and please lah...don't make uncle so stress with ketones and now MAF Method latest...yes, we are getting OVERFAT...minus 5...

lastly, as teacher and coach of sports, we must stay relevance to the contemporary sports science/sports nutrition/sports physiology/movement technique etc...we seek to inform, discuss and educate (and be corrected and educated)...

besides on-going discussion on the entitlements to the race tangibles (medals, goodies bags, race route etc)...we too enjoy a little valid concerns that we face as we age, adapting to the modern lifestyle and also the environmental preservation (save mother earth) from @Lady Ice...:)

Edited by kohpapa

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So can ya summarise what would be your top 10 tips to help folk to run better from 40 onwards (to keep focused with the OP's subject)?

p.s. I have known different folk who have hit PBs up until they were 50.

Edited by Lady Ice

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wah, when @Lady Ice asks, uncle must respond asap...again 1-sentence post..

"So can ya summarise what would be your top 10 tips to help folk to run better from 40 onwards (to keep focused with the OP's subject)?"

Ten Tips for Running Long with Just Five Hours of Running Time a Week...based on what we have discussed so far, and let uncle KISS:wub:illy...


extracted from https://medium.com/@johnsmart/ten-tips-for-running-long-26-2m-with-just-five-hours-of-running-time-a-week-867a039e6c99

Why and How to be an Endurance Athlete for Life, Without Overtraining


  1. Gently sweating exercise, of 30–60 mins a day, makes your brain work much better and your body live longer. But the longevity dividend may reverse after 60 mins a day, so on average, you likely don’t want more.
  2. Running a marathon or more gives Huge Mental Benefits (HMBs). You feel fantastic and grateful for life after finishing something that tough, and everything else you do feels easy, for months afterward. Try it and see!
  3. If you want to be able to happily run 1–2 marathons or ultras a year, your whole life long, with just five hours or less of training a week, as I do, you’ll need to get strategic.

Here are ten good strategies (tips to help folk to run better from 40 onwards)

1. Minimalist training shoes, and a Barefoot/Pose style. Foot/calf strength!
2. Proper training. Long run, intervals, cross-train, yoga, and stretching. 
3. Run/Walk/Run method, and variable rewards. Self-endorphins!
4. Aerobic max heart rate. MAF training gives speed & endurance in life!
5. Hoka Mafates for your long runs. One size too big. Save your toenails!
6. Injinji toe socks and double-layered Wright socks. No blisters!
7. Great shade hat and mesh shirt with ice pockets. Add ice as needed!
8. Hydration backpack. Sips of cold, icy water every 5 mins. Amazing!
9. Intermittent fasting. Lose weight, become a ketoadapted beast!
10. Primal lifestyle and nutritional ketosis. Dump the carbs!  :mellow:

let uncle gives all with this inspiration gif ...

when you run as @SgRunners...focus on your run....


uncle is OP'ed....;)

"p.s. I have known different folk who have hit PBs up until they were 50."

yes, with an individualised prudent training plan (half yearly - yearly) ...age (need to know what is MAF HR Base), for example item 4. Aerobic max heart rate. MAF training gives speed & endurance...diet (yes, ketoadapted),  run techniques (POSE or Chi-Running)..running gear - shoes, socks, hydration backpack for training with proper nutrition and hydration plan (stick to what it always work)...just follow the ten tips (strategies) pointed above...should be good enough to plan for PB (motivation) for any age above 40 for endurance or ultra run... and always remember to stay injury-free....will that be KISS:wub:illy enough for all? 

encourage all to continue to discuss, surely @Lady Ice, coach tbz shall be here...

uncle hibernating...so, see you in 2019...bye bye...

Edited by kohpapa

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